Otorhinolaryngology deals with the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ear (from the Greek Oros, Otos-ear), nose (from the Greek rhinos-nose), throat (from the Greek pharyngos-throat) and larynx (from the Greek laryngos-larynx).
The common name of this field of medicine is otolaryngology or even more often used-laryngology.
The outer ear is the eardrum and the ear canal that ends in the tympanic membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear.
The middle ear-like the inner ear-is located inside the temporal bone of the skull. The middle ear is a system of air cavities and consists of: the tympanic cavity with three auditory ossicles, the nipple cavity with the air cells of the appendage and the auditory tube. The auditory ossicles (hammer, anvil and stirrup) act on the principle of a lever in the transfer of sound from the gas environment (in the outer and middle ear) to the fluid spaces of the inner ear. Two intrathoracic muscles (the tympanic membrane tensioner and the stirrup muscle) ensure the proper mobility of this structure and perform an accommodative function in the transmission of sound. The auditory tube connecting the tympanic cavity to the pharynx equalizes the pressure in the same tympanic cavity.
The inner ear consists of a vagus nerve and a static-auditory nerve. The erysipelas are divided into: the bony erysipelas and its counterpart, the membranous erysipelas located inside the bony erysipelas. The space between the bony and membranous erysipelas is filled by a fluid called the perilymph, while inside the membranous erysipelas is a fluid called the endolymph.
The errant includes: a snail (so named because of its shell-shaped structure), inside which is located the hearing sense apparatus, vestibule and three semicircular canals in which the balance sense apparatus is located. The static-auditory nerve (VIII cranial nerve) consists of the auditory and vestibular parts. The auditory pathway, or the pathway of conduction of the auditory stimulus within the nervous system, runs to the cortex of the temporal lobe of the brain, and the atria to the cerebellum.